Who says two amoral and corrupt institutions with diametrically opposing ideologies can’t collaborate to sink even lower together?
Goldman Sachs, infamous investment bank and symbol of international predatory capitalism, has made a devil’s bargain with Nicolás Maduro, the infamous left-wing dictator of Venezuela who claims to despise companies just like Goldman. As Forbes writes:
“What happened is that the Venezuelan Treasury owned some bonds issued by PDVSA, the national oil company. They sold those bonds to Goldman Sachs at a serious discount to face value.”
Maduro’s authoritarian government has been rocked by protests this spring thanks to widespread economic and political devastation. (Maduro blames his country’s problems on an “economic war” waged by Washington.) The most shocking statistic is that 75 percent of Venezuelans are said to have lost at least 19 pounds from food shortages.
The Goldman deal was a win-win for the bank and the dictator. Goldman bought $2.8 billion worth of oil bonds for 32 cents on the dollar, according to the Times of London. Maduro’s regime, in return, immediately gets to stock its coffers with about $865 million.
[…] Venezuela’s descent into chaos has been ongoing for several years. Once an oil-rich nation with considerable sway in the region, Venezuela is now struggling under the weight of a crumbling economy and devastating food shortages. In February Venezuela was suspended from voting in the U.N. General Assembly over millions of dollars of unpaid debt — the second time in two years.
The country’s current crisis can arguably be traced back to price controls instituted by the government of former President Hugo Chavez. But the problem escalated in 2014, after oil prices plummeted and food shortages became an issue. As food became scarce, rising prices and increasing problems with smuggling caused the situation to spiral. Venezuela now has the world’s fastest-contracting economy and an inflation rate of almost 1,000 percent.
Venezuelans have been fleeing to Colombia and Brazil in an effort to find food and an escape from the country’s escalating crisis. Blackouts caused by electricity shortages are also a fact of life these days. Surveys indicate that 80 percent of medicines are scarce (if available at all), while 50 to 80 percent of food supplies are scarce. Contraceptives, water, toiletries, and paper have also been impacted.
Making the situation far worse is its leadership. Venezuela’s government is not doing much to fix the country’s staggering problems. President Nicolás Maduro claims that efforts to unseat him are a bourgeois plot, one that he has often linked to the United States. And while the United States has historically played a role in destabilizing governments in Latin America, Venezuela’s leader has been a deeply unpopular president.
- Death Count Marches Upward to 38 Amid Venezuela Unrest
- Venezuela Protests Rage, Jailed Lopez Supporters Stage Vigil
- Deadly Unrest Grips Venezuela as Students Rally
- Venezuela Violence Flares as Foes Decry Maduro’s Power Shakeup
- Wife of Jailed Venezuela Opposition Leader Seeks Info on Him
- US Senators Seek Sanctions, Other Ways to Address Venezuela Crisis
- Venezuela Plan to Rewrite Constitution Branded a Coup by Former Regional Allies
- Venezuela Congress Head Calls on Venezuelans to Rebel
- Tear Gas Chokes May Day in Volatile Venezuela
- US Supreme Court Sides With Venezuela Over Oil Rigs Claim
- Venezuela’s Maduro Sees Local Elections Later in 2017
- Venezuela Formally Notifies OAS It Will Leave Amid Protests
- US Says It Will Take Two Years for Venezuela to Leave OAS
- Some Oil Companies in Venezuela Pull Expats as Unrest Escalates
[…] The growing economic crisis — fueled by low prices for oil, the country’s main export; a drought that has crippled Venezuela’s ability to generate hydroelectric power; and a long decline in manufacturing and agricultural production — has turned into an intensely political one for President Nicolás Maduro. This month, he declared a state of emergency, his second this year, and ordered military exercises, citing foreign threats.
But the president looks increasingly encircled.
American officials say the multiplying crises have led Mr. Maduro to fall out of favor with members of his own socialist party, who they believe may turn on him, leading to chaos in the streets.
Old allies like Brazil, whose leftist president, Dilma Rousseff, was removed this month pending an impeachment trial, are now openly criticizing Venezuela. José Mujica, the leftist former president of Uruguay last week called Mr. Maduro “crazy like a goat.”
In the nearly year and a half since street protests rocked Caracas, the U.S. press has been kind to Leopoldo López, the 44-year-old jailed leader of Venezuela’s radical opposition. He has been painted as a combination of Nelson Mandela, Gandhi, and his distant grand uncle, SimónBolívar, for his magnetic brand of in-your-face politics. Newsweek wrote of his “twinkling chocolate-colored eyes and high cheekbones” and called López a “revolutionary who has it all.” The New York Times published a photo of him, jaw out, fist in the air, in front of a crowd of screaming protesters and gave him a platform on its op-ed page. In New York, when the United Nations met last September, protestors rallied to show support for López, and President Barack Obama listed him among a group of political prisoners from repressive countries such as China and Egypt who “deserve to be free.” López, who has done interviews shirtless, came to embody freedom and democracy for audiences across the globe, with stars from Kevin Spacey to Cher rallying to his cause, while the hashtag #freeleopoldo rocketed across Twitter.
But in Venezuela the picture is far more complicated. López has been in jail since February 2014 on charges of arson, public incitement, and conspiracy related to the first big anti-government protest that year, on Feb. 12, 2014, which left three protesters dead and kicked off weeks of rallies, street blockades, vandalism, and violence. The charges against him, which Amnesty International has called “politically motivated,” could carry a prison sentence of 10 years. Outside the courtroom, the public debate continues to swirl between those who believe López is a freedom fighter facing trumped-up charges and those who believe he is the violent “fascista” the government of President Nicolás Maduro claims.
‘Tensions between the United States and Venezuela are increasing after the Obama administration declared Venezuela to be an “unusual and extraordinary threat to national security” and slapped sanctions on seven top officials for alleged human right violations and corruption. On Tuesday, Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro asked the National Assembly for increased power to protect the country’s integrity and sovereignty from what he described as “imperialist aggression.” Relations between the United States and Venezuela have been decaying for the past few months. In December, President Obama signed legislation to impose sanctions on Venezuelan government officials accused of violating protesters’ rights during demonstrations last year when 43 people died, including demonstrators, government supporters and security officials. On February 19, the mayor of Caracas, Antonio Ledezma, was arrested for allegedly being involved in a U.S.-backed coup plot. Days later, Venezuela announced it had arrested an unspecified number of Americans for engaging in espionage and recruitment activities. Venezuela also announced a series of measures, including visa requirements for U.S. citizens and restrictions and the downsizing of the U.S. Embassy in Caracas. This all comes as Venezuela faces an economic crisis in part because of the plummeting price of oil. We are joined by Miguel Tinker Salas, professor at Pomona College and author of the forthcoming book, “Venezuela: What Everyone Needs to Know.”‘ (Democracy Now!)
- Venezuela’s Maduro claims his country has captured U.S. spies
- Venezuela president Maduro announces diplomatic sanctions against US
- The Economist: Venezuela is becoming a naked dictatorship
- Fact Not Fiction: US Aggression Against Venezuela
- The Assassination of Hugo Chavez (Documentary)
- White House says considering ‘tools’ to help steer Venezuela
- Arrest of Caracas mayor sign of broader Venezuela crackdown
- US, Latin America worry over Venezuela tensions
- The struggle of Venezuela against ‘a common enemy’
- Violence flares in Venezuela on anniversary of 2014 fatalities
- Venezuela angry at UK over ‘spy glasses’ smuggled into Lopez trial
- Venezuela’s economic collapse (Al Jazeera Programme)
- Hugo Chavez Is Alive In The Classroom
- ‘Stupid’ US sanctions won’t undo my government, says Maduro
- US Congress Passes Bill to Sanction Venezuela
- Venezuelan president uses expiring decree powers
- Terrorism and Assassinations in Venezuela
- US funds political groups in Venezuela despite ban
- The Modern History of Venezuela: Interview with Eric Lander
- What’s Driving Inflation in Venezuela? Debate with Greg Wilpert and John Weeks
- Corporate Propaganda on Venezuela? Interview with Gregory Wilpert and Professor Steve Ellner
‘Hugo Chávez was elected President of Venezuela four times from 1998 through 2012 and was admired and supported by a large majority of that country’s citizens, largely due to his policies that helped the poor. King Abdullah was the dictator and tyrant who ran one of the most repressive regimes on the planet.
The effusive praise being heaped on the brutal Saudi despot by western media and political figures has been nothing short of nauseating; the UK Government, which arouses itself on a daily basis by issuing self-consciously eloquent lectures to the world about democracy, actually ordered flags flown all day at half-mast to honor this repulsive monarch. My Intercept colleague Murtaza Hussain has an excellent article about this whole spectacle, along with a real obituary, here.’
- Saudi Arabia’s Tyrant King Misremembered as Man of Peace
- King Abdullah embodied the wickedness of Saudi Arabia’s regime
- Amnesty International on Saudi Arabia’s Human Rights
- King Abdullah, a feminist? Don’t make me laugh
- King Abdullah’s Saudi Arabia: Interviews with Ali al-Ahmed and Toby Jones
- Half-masting of flags following the death of King Abdullah
- Saudi King Abdullah: Britain mourns a tyrant
- Venezuelans’ Quality of Life Improved in UN Index Under Chavez
- Hugo Chavez was a democrat, not a dictator
- What ‘Democracy’ Really Means in U.S. and New York Times Jargon: Latin America Edition
21st-century censorship: Governments around the world are using stealthy strategies to manipulate the media
‘Two beliefs safely inhabit the canon of contemporary thinking about journalism. The first is that the internet is the most powerful force disrupting the news media. The second is that the internet and the communication and information tools it spawned, like YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook, are shifting power from governments to civil society and to individual bloggers, netizens, or “citizen journalists.”
It is hard to disagree with these two beliefs. Yet they obscure evidence that governments are having as much success as the internet in disrupting independent media and determining the information that reaches society. Moreover, in many poor countries or in those with autocratic regimes, government actions are more important than the internet in defining how information is produced and consumed, and by whom.
Illustrating this point is a curious fact: Censorship is flourishing in the information age. In theory, new technologies make it more difficult, and ultimately impossible, for governments to control the flow of information. Some have argued that the birth of the internet foreshadowed the death of censorship. In 1993, John Gilmore, an internet pioneer, told Time, “The Net interprets censorship as damage and routes around it.”
Today, many governments are routing around the liberating effects of the internet. Like entrepreneurs, they are relying on innovation and imitation. In countries such as Hungary, Ecuador, Turkey, and Kenya, officials are mimicking autocracies like Russia, Iran, or China by redacting critical news and building state media brands. They are also creating more subtle tools to complement the blunt instruments of attacking journalists.
As a result, the internet’s promise of open access to independent and diverse sources of information is a reality mostly for the minority of humanity living in mature democracies.’
‘One of the most accidentally revealing media accounts highlighting the real meaning of “democracy” in U.S. discourse is a still-remarkable 2002 New York Times Editorial on the U.S.-backed military coup in Venezuela, which temporarily removed that country’s democratically elected (and very popular) president, Hugo Chávez. Rather than describe that coup as what it was by definition – a direct attack on democracy by a foreign power and domestic military which disliked the popularly elected president – the Times, in the most Orwellian fashion imaginable, literally celebrated the coup as a victory for democracy:
With yesterday’s resignation of President Hugo Chávez, Venezuelan democracy is no longer threatened by a would-be dictator. Mr. Chávez, a ruinous demagogue, stepped down after the military intervened and handed power to a respected business leader, Pedro Carmona.
Thankfully, said the NYT, democracy in Venezuela was no longer in danger . . . because the democratically-elected leader was forcibly removed by the military and replaced by an unelected, pro-U.S. “business leader.” The Champions of Democracy at the NYT then demanded a ruler more to their liking: “Venezuela urgently needs a leader with a strong democratic mandate to clean up the mess, encourage entrepreneurial freedom and slim down and professionalize the bureaucracy.”’
Venezuela, Malaysia, Angola, New Zealand and Spain win U.N. Security Council seats, Turkey bid fails
‘Venezuela, Malaysia, Angola, New Zealand and Spain won seats on the United Nations Security Council on Thursday for two years from Jan. 1, 2015. The 193-member U.N. General Assembly elected Venezuela with 181 votes, Malaysia with 187 votes, Angola with 190 votes.
All three countries campaigned unopposed for their seats after being chosen as the candidates for their respective regional groups, but still needed to win the votes of two-thirds of the General Assembly to secure their spots.
The only contest was between New Zealand, Spain and Turkey for two seats given to the Western European and others group. New Zealand won a seat during the first round of voting with 145 votes. Spain beat Turkey in a third round of run-off voting.’
- Turkey fails in bid to join UN Security Council
- Venezuela elected to UN security council
- Spain wins seat on UN Security Council
- New Zealand wins seat on UN Security Council
- Angola Goes Big On UN Security Council
- Malaysia: How Will It Perform on the UN Security Council?
- Has America Stopped Even Pretending to Care About the U.N. Security Council?
‘Tech-savvy Venezuelans looking to bypass dysfunctional economic controls are turning to the bitcoin virtual currency to obtain dollars, make Internet purchases — and launch a little subversion.
Two New York-based Venezuelan brothers hope this week to start trading on the first bitcoin exchange in the socialist-run country, which already has at least several hundred bitcoin enthusiasts.
Due to currency controls introduced by late president Hugo Chavez a decade ago, acquiring hard currency now means either requesting it from the state, which struggles to satisfy demand, or tapping a shadowy black market. Even small dollar transactions are out of the question for most Venezuelans.’
‘Venezuelan officials used forged emails to accuse government adversaries of plotting to kill President Nicolas Maduro, according to a private investigation firm hired by one of the accused.
Ruling Socialist Party leaders in May said a group of ardent government critics were preparing to “annihilate” Maduro as part of a planned coup, showing images of emails they said were evidence of the plot.
The images of the emails showed “many indications of user manipulation,” according to the report released on Tuesday by Kivu Consulting. Records subpoenaed from Google also showed that messages attributed to consultant Pedro Burelli had never actually been sent, the report added.’
- Venezuela Leader Says Ties Restored With Panama
- Venezuelan army said to have trespassed Guyanese border, attacked miners
- Venezuela blackout leaves commuters scrambling, silences president
- Venezuela ruling party suspends leader for echoing criticism
- New Venezuela textbook raises concerns
- Venezuela to send oil to Palestinians
- No Drinking Water In Venezuela Until Bankers Get Paid Back
- Venezuela opposition leader to face trial over demos
- Study says Venezuelans world’s most miserable
- HRW: Venezuela violated rights of protesters
- Where the Wealthy Stir Violence While the Poor Build a New Society
‘Cuban President Raul Castro warned allies on Saturday that Havana’s closest ally Venezuela needed support amid fallout from deadly anti-government protests. “Venezuela today needs our staunchest support,” Castro, 83, said in a rare international speech at a Group of 77 and China meeting in Bolivia. “The oligarchs who could not get rid of President Hugo Chavez think the time has come to topple the Bolivarian revolution and President (Nicolas) Maduro,” Castro argued, calling the elected socialist government in Caracas “the front line of independence, freedom and dignity”.
Maduro is the closest regional ally of Cuba, the region’s only one-party communist state. Venezuelan economic support is critical to keeping the Cuban government and economy afloat. Cash-strapped Havana still has a centrally planned economy and cannot get access to international loans, and Venezuela supplies it with cut-rate oil. But inflation near 60 percent, widespread shortages of basic goods and soaring crime have plunged Venezuela — an oil-rich OPEC member — into political and economic crisis.’
‘I begin with three examples of State Department covert operations. The first examples start with Cuba (for context) and end with Venezuela, the target of the first two covert operations described below. The third example begins and ends with Cuba. These examples function as case studies that can be applied paradigmatically to Ukraine around the events of February 2014, when Ukraine’s elected president was overthrown in a coup supported by the United States. I conclude with commentary about the State Department’s likely evolution into a covert operations wing of the executive branch, and why such operations are illegal and threaten to ignite war in Europe among nations with nuclear weapons.’
- Latin American foreign ministers to discuss Venezuela unrest
- Do Venezuelan Protests Reflect Popular Discontent, or the Old Qualms of a Divided Elite? (Video)
- What Is Happening in Venezuela?
- Venezuela cuts ties with Panama, calling country a ‘lackey’ for the United States
- Venezuela remembers late leader Chavez (Video)
- Venezuela Anti-Government Protests Lack Support from the Barrios (Video)
- The Washington Post Uses Biased Experts to Promote Propaganda on Venezuela
- Ex-President Carter Planning Trip to Venezuela
- The US Has No Legitimacy on Venezuela
- Socialism’s critics look at Venezuela and say, ‘We told you so’. But they are wrong
- The US should respect Venezuela’s democracy
- Greg Palast Interviewed on the Scott Horton Show (Audio)
- Venezuelan Protests: Another Attempt By U.S.-Backed Right-Wing Groups To Oust Elected Government? (Video)
- Madonna: ‘Fascism alive and thriving in Venezuela‘
- The Assassination of Hugo Chavez (Greg Palast Documentary)
- South of the Border (Oliver Stone Documentary)
- El Comandante (Documentary)
Was Twitter censored by the Venezuelan government or did a complicit media spread disinformation at Washington’s behest?
[…] There was no censorship of Twitter, either of photos or text. Yet the Bloomberg story went out over the wires, was picked up by every major news outlet in the Western world, and soon achieved the status of the undisputed Conventional Wisdom. Those dirty rotten commies in Venezuela were not only clubbing and shooting their own citizens, but they also were hiding the evidence!
Except they weren’t hiding the evidence: it was and is there for all to see.
Washington’s war on the Chavistas is a matter of public record: the US government has been funding the opposition since the now departed Hugo Chavez came to power, and the heavy hand of the Bush administration was no doubt involved in a 2002 coup attempt – a brazenly stupid move that only served to cement Chavez’s rule.
Governments want to control the flow the information, and the Venezuelan regime is hardly an exception to that inflexible rule. Maduro and his avowedly socialist party have moved to muzzle opposition media outlets, and mobilized mobs of their supporters in order to tamp down rising criticism of their haplessly incompetent rule. The country is a mess, with skyrocketing inflation, endemic shortages of basic necessities, and a crime rate shocking to our delicate Western sensibilities. Yet the Chavistas aren’t stupid: they know they’d face a backlash at home and abroad if they dared clamp down the way some of them would probably like to.
- Venezuelan opposition leader to turn himself in
- Venezuela’s hardliner reappears as Nicolas Maduro expels US officials
- Venezuela Boots US Officials It Spied on for Months
- Mauricio Savarese: Venezuela’s Maduro left alone to deal with protests
- Venezuelan government accused of protest violence
- Pro and anti-Maduro marches gather thousands in Venezuela
- Loud Protests Continue Late Into The Night In Caracas Venezuela
- Police fire tear gas at Caracas protesters
- Officials in Venezuela order arrest of opposition leader Leopoldo López
- Venezuela Opposition Fears Crackdown After Protest
- Venezuela braces for more violence – but it could work in Maduro’s favour
- Venezuela Protests Persist, Dozens Jailed
- Venezuela frees some student protesters, unrest continues
- Twitter Reports Image Blocking in Venezuela After Protests
- US to Venezuela: Resolve Shortages Hitting Dailies
- In Pictures: What’s Happening in Venezuela?
Venezuela’s government and the opposition traded accusations on Thursday after at least three people were shot dead in the worst unrest since protests that followed President Nicolas Maduro’s narrow election victory last year. Thousands of students accompanied by opposition leaders marched through the capital Caracas and other cities on Wednesday, demonstrating over poor security, inflation and a lack of basic commodities, in a further escalation of university protests that took place two weeks ago. A government official said 23 people were injured, 25 arrested, four police vehicles torched and some government offices were vandalised on Wednesday.
Some opposition protesters, many with their faces covered, threw stones and burned tires in what is Maduro’s biggest political test since taking over from the late Hugo Chavez last year. “There will be no coup d’etat in Venezuela; you can rest assured. Democracy will continue, and the revolution will continue,” said Maduro, who ordered the arrest of an opposition leader, Leopoldo Lopez. Opposition and government supporters took to social media to blame their foes for Wednesday’s bloodshed.
The opposition blamed armed pro-government militant groups known as “colectivos” for attacking dozens of their marches over the years, scattering their supporters and spreading fear. Maduro blamed “small fascist groups” that, according to him, infiltrated the opposition protest. He further accused the opposition of wanting to recreate a similar situation that occurred in 2002, when huge street protests led to a coup that briefly ousted Chavez. He later returned to power with the help of loyal soldiers and hundreds of thousands of “Chavistas” who took to the streets to protest the coup.
Venezuela’s National Assembly has granted President Nicolas Maduro wide-ranging special powers to rule by decree for one year so that he can fix the economy.
Tuesday’s vote over the Enabling Law is the latest move by the elected Venezuelan leader, a protégé of the late President Hugo Chavez, to strengthen his hand as he faces an important political test in municipal elections next month.
The decree will essentially allow Maduro to create laws without parliamentary approval.
He says he needs greater personal power to stamp out opponents who are waging “economic warfare against his government” as the country struggles with soaring inflation and shortages of basic goods.
Venezuela’s foreign minister says efforts to re-establish diplomatic relations between his country and the United States remain frozen.
Elias Jaua says relations won’t improve as long as the United States keeps up what Venezuela’s government considers “interventionist activities,” including spying on foreign leaders.
Jaua said at a news conference in Mexico City that he isn’t surprised the United States spied on the late Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. He says the acknowledgment to The New York Times by the U.S. government make it difficult for Venezuela to have a good relationship with Washington.
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and Jaua had agreed to meet last June to work on restoring relations, but new tensions arose and they didn’t follow up.
Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro has called for the liberation of Latin America from Twitter, arguing that the American company attacked 6,600 accounts, including his own.
[…] According to a Thursday statement from the president, Maduro’s Twitter account was attacked to spark unrest and suspend the upcoming December 8 elections.
Communications Minister Delsy Rodriguez stated that nearly 6,600 of the leader’s Twitter followers disappeared from the president’s account within 10 minutes. No details were provided regarding the time of the attack. As of Friday, Maduro had 1.4 million followers.
The opposition has been criticizing the president for obsessing over social media and not paying enough attention to the country’s economic problems.
Since his election as Venezuelan president in April, Maduro has spoken about a number of alleged plots against his government – including five attempts on his life.
Venezuela says two light aircraft have been shot down after entering the country’s airspace over the weekend.
These were the first mid-air attacks by fighter jets since a bill authorising such action against illegal planes was approved earlier this month, the Bolivarian Armed Forces said.
The aircraft were allegedly smuggling drugs from Central America and refused to follow the military pilots’ orders.
Another 11 unauthorised planes have been disabled on the ground this year.
Venezuelan security forces say more than 35 tonnes of drugs have been found this year.
OTHER RECENT NEWS:
- ‘US airspace denial for Maduro is payback for offering asylum to Snowden’ (RT)
- US grants Venezuela permission to enter airspace (AFP)
- Venezuela leaves international human rights body (Al Jazeera)
- Latin America–United States relations (Wikipedia)
- CELAC: Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Wikipedia)
Bolivian President Evo Morales will file a lawsuit against the US government for crimes against humanity. He has decried the US for its intimidation tactics and fear-mongering after the Venezuelan presidential jet was blocked from entering US airspace.
“I would like to announce that we are preparing a lawsuit against Barack Obama to condemn him for crimes against humanity,” said President Morales at a press conference in the Bolivian city of Santa Cruz. He branded the US president as a “criminal” who violates international law.
In solidarity with Venezuela, Bolivia will begin preparing a lawsuit against the US head of state to be taken to the international court. Furthermore, Morales has called an emergency meeting of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) to discuss what has been condemned by Venezuela as “an act of intimidation by North American imperialism.”
The Bolivian president has suggested that the members of CELAC withdraw their ambassadors from the US to send a message to the Obama Administration. As an additional measure he will call on the member nations of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas to boycott the next meeting of the UN. Members of the Alliance include Antigua and Barbuda, Cuba, Dominica, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Saint Lucia.
“The US cannot be allowed to continue with its policy of intimidation and blockading presidential flights,”stressed Morales.
by Doug Stanglin
Edward Snowden said Friday that he has no regrets over leaking details about U.S. electronic spying networks and is seeking temporary asylum in Russia until he can reach one of the Latin American countries that has offered to take him in.
“That moral decision to tell the public about spying that affects all of us has been costly, but it was the right thing to do and I have no regrets,” he told a group of human rights activists and other public officials at a meeting at Moscow’s Sheremetyevo airport, where he has taken refuge since June 23.
US allies Mexico, Brazil, Colombia and Chile have joined other Latin American nations in demanding answers from Washington over spying allegations.
Brazilian media reported earlier this week that the US had seized web traffic and phone calls across the region.
Spying targets included oil and energy firms, Venezuela’s military purchases and information on Mexico’s drug wars.