Members of the Cell Biology in Environmental Toxicology group have found evidence that male fish in the estuaries in Basque Country are becoming “feminised” by chemical pollutants in the water. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) acting as oestrogens – the primary female sex hormones – are seeping into the waters and causing reproductive and developmental disturbances, according to a report published in the Marine Environmental Research journal.
Immature eggs were found in the testicles of a number of male fish, the scientists from the University of the Basque Country said. The chemicals involved are found in everyday products such as pesticides, contraceptive pills and detergents. They are thought to enter the estuaries after getting through the cleaning systems in water treatment plants or as a result of industrial and farming activities.
Several thousand protesters from across the continent turned out today [March 30th] in the European Union capital city of Brussels. Several nations were represented, none of them currently recognized, and all had the same message: secession now.
Officials like to portray secession as a fringe tactic that comes up only in places like Crimea, and then only at the behest of a foreign power hoping to capitalize on it. That’s less and less the case, as secession grows in appeal across Europe.
Scotland aims to separate from Britain, and Catalan hopes to leave Spain. Even Brussels itself is in the midst of a major secession fight, as Flanders hopes to reassert itself as an independent nation, with Brussels as its presumptive capital.
Italy is the king of secessionist movements though, with three distinct major movements going on at once. Venice has already held a referendum on resuming its independence, while Tyrol is mulling a similar division, and Sardinia hopes to go the route of Crimea, ditching Italy in favor of Switzerland.
At the core of all these movements is a single question: is there an inherent right to self-determination, or is secession only acceptable when the major world powers feel it is convenient. It’s an argument that officials are likely to continue to bicker about, but which the secessionist movements see as obvious.
- Crimean annexation does Europe’s separatists no favors
- Scottish independence: ‘Yes’ vote carries substantial risk, says Weir Group
- Italy Troops Crack Down on Secessionists Nationwide
- Italy police seize makeshift tank built by Venice separatists
- All roads lead…out of Rome? Sardinia plans secession referendum
- Spanish court says Catalonia sovereignty claim illegal
- Italy’s separatist spirit takes new shape as Sardinians push to become Swiss
- Venice seeks independence from Italy in unofficial poll
- Catalan Independence Push Gains Steam Amid Spain’s Financial Woes
- Secessionist wave sweeps Belgium
- Dealing With Secession in Europe
- List of active separatist movements in Europe
Report: Investor-state lawsuits worth €1.7 billion rage across Europe, could spiral dramatically under TTIP
Greece, Cyprus and Spain are facing claims from speculative investors worth more than €1.7 billion in a series of eurozone-related investor-state disputes that could spiral dramatically under a proposed EU-US trade deal known as TTIP, a new report says. The study ‘Profiting from Crisis’, is launched today (10 March) by campaigning group Corporate Europe Observatory and the Trans-National Institute, as the EU begins a public consultation on the regulatory implications of any agreement.
The paper finds that “a growing wave” of corporate lawsuits from investors burned in Europe’s recent economic crisis risks repeating the banking sector bail-out that precipitated it. Many of these litigants are “circling vultures” looking for short-term bargains and not long-term investments, the report claims. “At a time when ordinary people across Europe have been stripped of many basic social rights, it is perverse that the EU supports an international investment regime which provides VIP protection to largely speculative foreign investors,” said Cecilia Olivet, the report’s co-author.
Spain’s pioneering universal jurisdiction doctrine, which has enabled judges to prosecute foreigners in connection with human rights crimes committed in other countries, will be shaved back within four months following a vote in Congress Tuesday night [Feb 11th] to reform the judicial code. According to the reform, judges will only be able to open investigations against a suspected human rights violator if the defendant “is Spanish or a foreigner who frequently resides in Spain,” or who is currently in the country and Spanish authorities have refused to allow their extradition.
After an intense debate that pitted the entire opposition against the ruling Popular Party (PP), the final vote stood 179 in favor and 163 against, reflecting the conservatives’ absolute majority in Congress. The new legislation will come into effect within the next four months. Opposition groups roundly condemned the government’s decision and were united in their conviction that pressure from Beijing guided the hand of Mariano Rajoy’s Popular Party administration.
Spain’s prime minister has called a referendum on independence for Catalonia “illegal” in his state of the union address. Mariano Rajoy vowed to block the vote, which the Catalan authorities intend to hold on 9 November. Both Spain’s ruling conservative party and the Socialist opposition have long stated their rejection of a referendum. But in recent months, the Catalan regional government has vowed to press ahead even without Madrid’s blessing.
Mr Rajoy told the Spanish parliament during the annual state of the nation debate that “this referendum can’t take place, it is not legal”. He added: “It is the entire Spanish people who have the capacity to decide what Spain is.” Mr Rajoy also addressed Spain’s economic problems in his speech, saying that the country had turned a corner and was “part of the driving engine” of Europe. He also revised the growth forecast upwards from 0.7% to 1% for 2014, and promised tax cuts for 12 million of Spain’s 17 million taxpayers.
‘For 40 years the militant group ETA carried out a bloody campaign for independence in the regions of Spain and France known as Basque country. 800 people lost their lives in the campaign with countless others injured. More than two years ago ETA announced a unilateral, permanent ceasefire in favour of a political agreement but the Spanish government maintains it won’t enter talks with the group until it admits defeat and surrenders unconditionally. But now ETA is expected to announce that it will hand over its weapons and bomb-making equipment.’ (Truthloader)
An IKEA store set to open in Spain has received more than 100,000 online applications alone for just 400 jobs.
Cash-strapped Spaniards desperate for work have been submitting CVs from across the country in a bid to work at the home furnishing firm’s Alfafar branch, outside the eastern city of Valencia.
It means on average a staggering 250 people have applied for each single job.
Youth unemployment for Spain — for those aged 18 to 25 years old — currently stands at a staggering 57.7%, with more than one in four (25.7%) of adults out of work.
The application process initially opened on Dec. 2.
Insufficient credit threatens to throttle Spain’s fragile recovery, they warn, after a double-dip recession triggered by a 2008 property crash, which left banks awash with bad loans.
Last year, Spain shored up its tottering banks’ balance sheets with a €41.3-billion ($56 billion) programme financed by its eurozone partners.
But the banks have shown reluctance to lend, economists and industry say, as the eurozone’s fourth-largest economy struggles with a 26-percent unemployment rate and, according to official data compiled by auditors PwC, a 20-percent rise in bankruptcy filings in 2013.
A Madrid demonstration in sympathy with protests in the northern Spanish city of Burgos against a local government plan to convert a street into a tree-lined boulevard turned violent on Wednesday, leading to 11 arrests and 11 injuries.
Rioters tossed smoke bombs, threw chairs from street terraces and burned garbage containers in central Madrid after a march that began in the capital’s Puerta del Sol square and ended near the ruling conservative People’s Party (PP) central headquarters.
Police and emergency service sources said 11 protesters were arrested and 11 people, including five police officers, were injured during the riots.
It was one of 46 protests across Spanish cities on Wednesday against the state-financed project in Burgos that has stoked public fury. Critics say widespread corruption has plunged Spain into an economic crisis that has lasted for years, leaving one in four workers unemployed.
Spain is on the verge of passing a draconian measure that threatens fundamental values of free speech. Faced with ongoing protests over economic conditions, the Spanish government is about to make insulting police officers and protesting without permission crimes punishable by fine greater than dealing drugs or prostitution. Not since Franco has the country turned so decidedly against civil liberties and free speech.
Once passed by the Spanish Parliament, citizens who dare to protest without permission will face fines up to $810,000. It would be better to sell drugs which are subject to less than five percent of that fine.
Harassment or insults can be charged with fines as high as €600,000. An insult to a police officer is now treated as a “serious offense” with fines of €30,000. Most people consider insulting the government or police to be a core exercise of free speech.
The concern is that, as economic and social tensions grow, such measures may expand throughout Europe.
- The great Spain robbery: Pensioners protest as they watch their life savings vanish into the banks’ black hole
- Moody’s says no ‘clean bill of health’ for Spain banks
- Spain’s Economy Is Main Risk for Nation’s Banks, EU Says
- Spain’s economy strengthens but gloomy mood lingers
- Caja Madrid ‘ordered staff to hide’ preferential share details from customers ‘duped’ into signing their savings away
- CAM bank former ‘top two’ jailed with 1.9-million-euro bail release
- EU bank VP probed in Spanish corruption scandal
- PM: ‘Spain is out of recession but not out of the crisis’
- Large rally opposes moves for Catalan independence
- Madrid seeks talks with Catalonia to avoid independence referendum
The most expensive government on the planet—ours—was shut down over budget concerns, health insurance and passive-aggressiveness. The inane partisan squabbling most acutely affected those with the most to lose—the people at the bottom of the economic pile. Meanwhile, grossly unequal division of wealth and power is a growing blight on the face of humanity. Dangerous mechanisms of financial ruin are nurtured by governments while they spew rhetoric about helping citizens. A future in which reckless economic exploitation will diminish seems highly unlikely.
But what if another world were possible? One in which the spoils of predatory capitalism, subsidized by central banks and federal policy, aren’t rapaciously consumed by a tiny minority at the expense of the vast majority of global citizens?
In his captivating new book, “The Village Against the World,” Dan Hancox shows, in lyrical and penetrating prose, that not only is it possible, but “an observable fact.” And so begins his tale of the alternative.
Nestled in farmland about 60 miles from Seville, Spain, in the region of Andalucía, exists Marinaleda, a village of 2,700 people. The cry OTRO MUNDO ES POSSIBLE—another world is possible—adorns a metal arch over its main avenue. For 30 years, the citizens of this tiny pueblo have fought and won a struggle to create a utopia in which everyone has a job and a home. Communism seems too dismissive and combative a term for Marinaleda’s ability to exist in defiance of a system that has shattered surrounding towns, and entire countries around the world.
“The year 2016,” Hancox writes, “will mark the 500th anniversary of Thomas More’sUtopia … But … how do you go from a fevered dream, an aspirational blueprint, to concrete reality?”
[...] immunity for Franco’s helpers may be about to end. In Argentina, Judge María Servini de Cubría of the first chamber of the Federal Criminal Court in Buenos Aires issued international arrest warrants for four former Spanish police officers in mid-September. They include some of the tormentors of Galante and Chivite. At least two of them are still alive: Jesús Muñecas and Juan Antonio González Pacheco. There is “tremendous symbolic value” to Argentina’s decision to demand the extradition of Franco’s officers, 38 years after his death, says Chivite.
The Spanish attorney general’s office refuses to have them arrested, and for Spanish citizens there is no threat of extradition. Nevertheless, a judge on the Spanish National Court wants to summon both former police officers to determine whether they are willing to testify voluntarily before Servini.
To this day, the Spaniards have not legally come to terms with the crimes committed by the Franco regime against the leftists on the losing side of the civil war. The cases now being looked into in Argentina occurred during the time period from the coup against the elected government of the Spanish Republic on July 17, 1936, to the first free parliamentary elections on June 15, 1977. The parties of the left, which had been brutally persecuted for four decades, agreed to an amnesty law at that time to help facilitate a peaceful transition to democracy.
But now a wave of lawsuits is heading toward Spain.
The World Cup and European Championship holders will play Equatorial Guinea in a friendly in the capital, Malabo, on 16 November.
The German, French, Spanish and Swedish intelligence services have all developed methods of mass surveillance of internet and phone traffic over the past five years in close partnership with Britain’s GCHQ eavesdropping agency.
The bulk monitoring is carried out through direct taps into fibre optic cables and the development of covert relationships with telecommunications companies. A loose but growing eavesdropping alliance has allowed intelligence agencies from one country to cultivate ties with corporations from another to facilitate the trawling of the web, according to GCHQ documents leaked by the former US intelligence contractor Edward Snowden.
The files also make clear that GCHQ played a leading role in advising its European counterparts how to work around national laws intended to restrict the surveillance power of intelligence agencies.
- NSA chief Keith Alexander blames diplomats for surveillance requests (Guardian)
- US envoy to Germany says no laws broken in spy affair (AFP)
- US surveillance has gone too far, John Kerry admits (Guardian)
- Spy chief Clapper: We’ve been snooping on our friends for years (NBC)
- U.S. tells U.N. it won’t spy on world body (Reuters)
- Rand Paul: NSA may spy on Obama (The Hill)
- Finland says it was target of “massive” digital spying (AFP)
- Report: French and Spanish intelligence aided NSA spying (RT)
- Spain announces inquiry into alleged surveillance of citizens by NSA (Guardian)
- U.S. spying on Europeans a symptom of a paranoid government, Germans say (McClatchy)
- NSA Official: Obama Was Informed of Spying on Merkel’s Cellphone, Let It Continue (FDL)
- Rep. Mike Rogers: France should be ‘popping champagne’ over NSA spying (AFP)
- US ‘used its Yorkshire base to spy on Merkel’ claims whistleblower (Daily Mail)
- UK signs EU statement rapping US spying activities (Press TV)
United Nations experts have urged Spain to investigate what happened to thousands of people who went missing during the civil war and nationalist Franco dictatorship.
The plea came after a week-long visit to Spain by a UN working group, who met government officials and victims’ relatives in several regions.
[...] A network of victims’ relatives, the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory (ARMH in Spanish), has a list of 41 mass graves, but says the remains have not been exhumed “because of a lack of funds”.
In 2008 a Spanish judge, Baltasar Garzon, decided to investigate the disappearance of tens of thousands of people during the Franco era. He ordered the excavation of mass graves – but the move was highly controversial.
In 2010 he was forced to drop the investigation and was suspended after Spain’s supreme court found that he had ignored the 1977 amnesty law. That law was passed in order to ease Spain’s transition to democracy after Franco’s rule.
Website owners whose sites profit from linking to unauthorized copyrighted material can now be jailed for up to six years under a new measure that passed today in Spain. Spain is considered one of the worst offenders in Europe when it comes to illegally downloading content; one study reported that 98.7 of music Spaniards listen to is pirated. The law will spare peer-to-peer filesharing sites, search engines, and users of the link-sharing sites.
The country enacted the law as a response to pressure from the US, where ironically the law is not as strict. Spain is in danger of being added to a list of countries that Washington considers to be the most egregious violators of copyright law, meaning it could be subject to trade sanctions from the US. Considering that Spain has just started recovering from the deep recession that began in 2008, it makes sense that citizens are downloading their music and movies instead of paying for it. But for the same reason, the Spanish government desperately wants to avoid angering one of its best customers.
The number of young Spaniards belonging to what has become known as the lost generation is up 2% since June to 883,000. Only Greece has a higher percentage of young people out of work, at 62.9%.
Among adult males, Spain has the highest unemployment at 25.3%, higher even than Greece. Despite the government’s claims that the worst has passed and that employment reforms will encourage firms to hire, the figures suggest it will be a long time before any upturn in the economy is reflected in a declining jobless rate. With the holiday season coming to a close, the numbers are likely to rise as workers on seasonal contracts go back on the dole.
With close to six million Spaniards out of work, unemployment is so entrenched that there was no political reaction to the latest figures, neither from government nor the opposition. Indeed, mentioning the economy at all has become virtually taboo across the political spectrum. Meanwhile, Spaniards and recent immigrants are deserting the country in search of work, with 500,000 leaving in 2012, 60,000 of them Spanish nationals, most of them to Latin America and Europe.
RECENT NEWS FROM SPAIN:
- Spain’s Public Debt Rises Above 2013 Target as Economy Struggles (Business Week)
- School scheme shows social impact of Spain’s economic crisis (FT)
- Spanish PM says economy in Q3 will be ‘better’ than previous quarters (Reuters)
- Spain reaps benefit of austerity measures, says economy minister (FT)
- Spanish Bad Loans Re-Spike To 50-Year High (Zero Hedge)
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) on Friday called on Spain’s unions and employers to work together to find solutions – including cutting workers’ wages – to tackle unemployment and stimulate growth so that more jobs can be created.
In its latest report on Spain, the IMF said government reforms need to go further to increase companies’ “internal flexibility” and “enhance employment opportunities for the unemployed.”
While lauding the government’s labor reform, IMF officials said the government should consider reducing taxes on companies that focus on hiring certain groups, such as the young and low-skilled.
[...] IMF technicians undertook a study to look at the effects of a 10-percent wage cut over two years accompanied by a reduction in social security contributions by one and two-thirds of a percent. It also examined broadening the base of the value-added tax (VAT) in two years, passing the now-reduced products, which have an 11-percent rate, into the general 21-percent category.
Spain tapped its social security reserve fund for the second time in a month on Monday, the Labour Ministry said, to help with extra summer pension payments as unemployment and retirement costs deplete government funds.
The government turned to the fund for 3.5 billion euros ($4.6 billion) on July 1 then for a further 1 billion euros on Monday. Spanish pensioners receive two cheques in summer and two over the Christmas holidays.
Spain was forced to tap the reserve for the first time last year to help pay pension costs, using some 7 billion euros.
Record high unemployment, which hit over 27 percent in the first quarter, and a growing number of retirees on a state pensions have put an unprecedented strain on Spanish social security funds.
The fund was worth 59.3 billion euros, or 5.65 percent of gross domestic product, after the operation on Monday, the Ministry said.
Last week the multimillionaire former treasurer of the ruling Popular Party (PP), Luis Bárcenas, was refused bail and remanded in custody pending trial on charges of corruption and tax evasion. He amassed a fortune worth tens of millions of euros hidden in foreign bank accounts, which were used to channel illegal payments from wealthy businessmen to PP ministers and officials.
This week, Spain’s second-largest circulation newspaper El Mundo published an interview between its editor Pedro J. Ramírez and Bárcenas.
Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy was allegedly paid from a slush fund operated by the governing People’s Party (PP) when he was a minister in the 1990s, according to documents published in the newspaper El Mundo. The accusations drew denials from the PP and calls for Mr Rajoy’s resignation, from opposition parties weary of austerity measures and an economy mired in recession.
El Mundo says it handed over documents, supposedly handwritten by former PP treasurer and senator Luis Bárcenas, to the High Court on Monday, and carried pictures on its front page of ledger entries which purport to show the names of Rajoy and other senior PP figures, along with the amounts they were allegedly paid.
by MIGUEL GONZÁLEZ
Spain and the US are expected to formalize an agreement in the coming weeks over the stationing of four destroyers at the naval base in Rota, Cádiz, for an initial period of over four years. The deal is worth 200 million euros to Spanish public company Navantia, which will be responsible for the maintenance of the four Arleigh Burke class vessels. The destroyers form part of the NATO missile defense shield and are equipped with Aegis combat systems capable of intercepting ballistic missiles.
by John Pilger
Imagine the aircraft of the President of France being forced down in Latin America on “suspicion” that it was carrying a political refugee to safety – and not just any refugee but someone who has provided the people of the world with proof of criminal activity on an epic scale.
Imagine the response from Paris, let alone the “international community”, as the governments of the West call themselves. To a chorus of baying indignation from Whitehall to Washington, Brussels to Madrid, heroic special forces would be dispatched to rescue their leader and, as sport, smash up the source of such flagrant international gangsterism. Editorials would cheer them on, perhaps reminding readers that this kind of piracy was exhibited by the German Reich in the 1930s.
The forcing down of Bolivian President Evo Morales’s plane – denied air space by France, Spain and Portugal, followed by his 14-hour confinement while Austrian officials demanded to “inspect” his aircraft for the “fugitive” Edward Snowden – was an act of air piracy and state terrorism. It was a metaphor for the gangsterism that now rules the world and the cowardice and hypocrisy of bystanders who dare not speak its name.
In Moscow for a summit of gas-producing nations, Morales had been asked about Snowden who remains trapped in Moscow airport. “If there were a request [for political asylum],” he said, “of course, we would be willing to debate and consider the idea.” That was clearly enough provocation for the Godfather. “We have been in touch with a range of countries that had a chance of having Snowden land or travel through their country,” said a US state department official.
The French – having squealed about Washington spying on their every move, as revealed by Snowden – were first off the mark, followed by the Portuguese. The Spanish then did their bit by enforcing a flight ban of their airspace , giving the Godfather’s Viennese hirelings enough time to find out if Snowden was indeed invoking article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: “Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.”
Those paid to keep the record straight have played their part with a cat-and-mouse media game that reinforces the Godfather’s lie that this heroic young man is running from a system of justice, rather than preordained, vindictive incarceration that amounts to torture: ask Bradley Manning and the living ghosts in Guantanamo.
Historians seem to agree that the rise of fascism in Europe might have been averted had the liberal or left political class understood the true nature of its enemy. The parallels today are very different; but the Damocles sword over Snowden, like the casual abduction of the Bolivian president, ought to stir us into recognizing the true nature of the enemy.
Snowden’s revelations are not merely about privacy, nor civil liberty, nor even mass spying. They are about the unmentionable: that the democratic facades of the United States now barely conceal a systematic gangsterism historically identified with if not necessarily the same as fascism. On Tuesday, a US drone killed 16 people in North Waziristan, “where many of the world’s most dangerous militants live”, said the few paragraphs I read. That by far the world’s most dangerous militants had hurled the drones was not a consideration. President Obama personally sends them every Tuesday.
In his acceptance of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Literature, Harold Pinter referred to “a vast tapestry of lies, upon which we feed”. He asked why “the systematic brutality, the widespread atrocities” of the Soviet Union were well known in the West while America’s crimes were “superficially recorded, let alone documented, let alone acknowledged”. The most enduring silence of the modern era covered the extinction and dispossession of countless human beings by a rampant America and its agents. “But you wouldn’t know it,” said Pinter. “It never happened. Even while it was happening it never happened. It didn’t matter. It was of no interest.”
This hidden history – not really hidden, of course, but excluded from the consciousness of societies drilled in American myths and priorities – has never been more vulnerable to exposure. Edward Snowden’s whistleblowing, like that of Bradley Manning and Julian Assange and WikiLeaks, threatens to break the silence Pinter described. In revealing a vast Orwellian police state apparatus servicing history’s greatest war-making machine, they illuminate the true extremism of the 21st century. Unprecedented, Germany’s Der Spiegel has described the Obama administration as “soft totalitarianism”. If the penny is finally falling, we might all look closer to home.
Italy’s public debt reached a new high of 2.0413 trillion euros in April, an Increase of 6.5 billion euros from March, and 88.3 billion euros from April last year, the central bank said on Friday.
The April Increase in Italy’s massive public debt load owed Principally to a 0.5 billion euro rise in the cost of the public sector in the first four months of the year Compared with the same period of 2012, the Bank of Italy said.
The public debt of recession-hit Spain soared to a new record in the first quarter, hitting nearly 923 billion euros (1.2 trillion dollars), or 88.2 per cent of gross domestic product, the Bank of Spain said Friday.
That is up 19.09 per cent from the first quarter of 2012.
Catalonia firefighters were starting fires rather than putting them out this week during a demonstration held in Barcelona.
The emergency workers clashed with riot police while protesting over austerity cuts in the recession hit Catalonian capital.
Hundreds of firefighters, sporting yellow helmets and red jackets, grappled with police amid concerns over the latest proposed budget cuts.
by DEREK THOMPSON
Europe’s job market is a historic disaster.
The EU unemployment rate set a new all-time high of 12.2 percent, according to today’s estimates. But it’s the youth unemployment crisis that’s truly terrifying. In Spain, unemployment surged past 56 percent, and Greece now leads the rich world with an astonishing 62.5 percent of its youth workforce out of a job (graph via James Plunket).
Spain’s Bankia Decimates Savers As Stock Plummets; Police Officer Stabs Banker Who Sold Him Shares ~ Forbes
by Agustino Fontevecchia
‘While investors across the globe applaud Bernanke and other central bankers for pushing stock markets to record highs, retail investors and savers in Spain are facing massive losses. Markets appear to have forgotten Europe’s sovereign debt crisis and the woes in Spain: on Tuesday, new shares in nationalized financial institution Bankia began trading, closing the day at €0.57 ($0.74), marking a more than 80% drop from their floating price in 2011 when the banking group was formed. The average Spaniard is suffering, and the situation has gotten to the point where on Sunday, a police officer stabbed a former Bankia employee four times after a heated discussion related to the sale of preferred shares in the failed banking group.’
by Roberto A. Ferdman
‘[...] After spending nearly one-third of a $3 billion budget to build four of the world’s most advanced submarines, the project’s engineers have run into a problem: the submarines are so heavy that they would sink to the bottom of the ocean.
Miscalculations by engineers at Navantia, the construction company contracted to built the S-80 submarine fleet, have produced submarines that are each as much as 100 tonnes (110 US tonnes) too heavy. The excess weight sounds paltry compared to the 2,000-plus tonnes (2,205 US tonnes) that each submarine weighs, but it’s more than enough to send the submarines straight to the ocean’s floor.
Given the mistake, Spain is going to have to choose between two costly fixes: slimming the submarines down, or elongating them to compensate for the extra fat. All signs point to the latter, which will be anything but a breeze—adding length will still require redesigning the entire vessel. And more money on top of the $680 million already spent.’